Project Title: Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging to Investigate Mechanistic Constituents in Thyroid Eye Disease
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an auto-immune disease whereby lymphocytic infiltration, cytokine release, glycosaminoglycan deposition, and shifts in interstitial osmotic gradients deform the periorbital anatomy in patients. Engorgement and expansion of various tissue compartments can cause proptosis, double vision, ocular exposure, or irreversible vision loss from compressive optic neuropathy. TED treatment depends on disease activity and interventions range from systemic steroids and radiotherapy to targeted immunotherapy and surgical decompression. Therapeutic endpoints to measure disease activity are not well established; however, novel functional imaging techniques to measure disease activity are now practical in both medical and surgical settings. Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) provides access to multi-spectral absorption and scattering information for biological chromophores and water to provide quantifiable detail about tissue hemodynamics and spectral content, which in turn allow in vivo interrogation of tissue quickly and non-invasively. We propose to investigate TED activity by applying SFDI to define an optical signature map characteristic for healthy eyes, and TED before, during, and after treatment. We will use this information to establish clinical end-points and improve clinical outcomes by understanding strategies to modulate hemodynamics, osmotic gradients and collagen remodeling.